When we say that a piece of music is in a particular key, it means that it’s leaving out some of the notes. Bach’s chaconne is in D minor, so it only uses the notes D, E, F, G, A, B♭, and C. (And sometimes C# to add some drama to the chords.) That’s a more manageable number of notes to keep track of in your head. Also, they’re all related in a variety of nifty, simple mathematical ways. In D minor, you usually avoid using the notes E♭, G♭, A♭, and B. Those notes sound “wrong,” or in music theory terms, dissonant.
The main chord progression of this tune features an A♭ major chord for two beats of the first measure, C minor for the last two beats of that first measure (falls on beat three), and B♭ major for an entire bar, repeating over and over and… over. Using the image above, you can now analyze this progression as IV major, VI minor, and V major.
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Since we had some Lydian keys this year, and Lydian is technically a major mode, I lumped these songs in with the major column — above, at least. Below you can see these separated out.